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Articles de parapsychologie dans des revues mainstream

Articles de parapsychologie dans des revues mainstream

Un des problèmes majeurs conduisant à la méconnaissance du domaine parapsychologique est le manque de visibilité de la discipline dans les revues des sciences conventionnelles. Les parapsychologues publient le plus souvent en anglais dans des revues spécialisées qui ne sont pas disponibles dans les bibliothèques universitaires (quelques unes ont néanmoins été numérisées et sont disponibles sur Lexscien.org). Mais les questions traitées par les parapsychologues concernent toutes les disciplines scientifiques, et il arrive parfois que des revues dites « mainstream » leur ouvrent leurs pages.
En général, l’accès des parapsychologues à ces revues est très limité, par exemple pour les prestigieuses revues Science ou Nature qui ont montré une mauvaise volonté extrême en ce qui concerne la publication d’articles favorables à la parapsychologie (Collins & Pinch, 1979, pp.257-258; McClenon, 1984, pp.114-118; Rockwell, 1979). Un exemple significatif est donné par Honorton et al. (1975) : Honorton a soumis à Science un article sur l’étude des effets expérimentateurs dans l’ESP. Le manuscrit a été décortiqué par quatre rapporteurs, trois d’entre eux concluant en faveur de la publication de cet article. Le rapporteur dissident n’était clairement pas familier avec la recherche parapsychologique, étant par exemple incapable d’accepter l’observation d’un score d’ESP se situant significativement en-dessous de la ligne du hasard. Finalement, les éditeurs de Science décidèrent de ne pas publier l’article. Lorsque des articles finissent par être acceptés dans Science ou Nature, leurs publications sont fréquemment déformés par des remarques négatives faites dans un éditorial accompagnant spécifiquement l’article, ou dans un commentaire de scientifiques hors du champ parapsychologique (Collins & Pinch, 1979, pp.258-259) ; souvent, de tels ajouts n’ont pas été soumis aux procédures éditoriales usuelles.
Une grande proportion des articles recensés ici sont publiés par des revues de psychologie, mais là encore plusieurs biais éditoriaux apparaissent. Les revues de psychologie acceptent plus facilement de publier des rapports d’expérimentations psi ayant échoué (Billig, 1972). De même, les manuels de psychologie ont tendance soit à ignorer la totalité de la recherche parapsychologique (Child, 1985 ; Irwin 1991b; Lamal, 1989), soit à décrire des recherches dépassées ou de faible valeur (McClenon, Roig, Smith & Ferrier, 2003 ; Rogo, 1980; Roig, Icochea & Cuzzucoli, 1991). [[Voici les références utilisées provenant d’autres sources :
Billig, M. (1972). Positive and negative experimental psi results in psychology and parapsychology journals. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 46, 132-146.
Honorton, C., Ramsey, M., & Cabibbo, C. (1975). Experimenter effects in extrasensory perception. Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, 69, 135-149.
Irwin, H.J. (1991b). The presentation of parapsychology in psychology texts. Australian Parapsychological Review, 18, 21-23.
McClenon, J. (1984).Deviant science : The case of parapsychology. Philadelphia, PA : University of Pennsylvania Press.
McClenon, B., Roig, M., Smith M.D., & Ferrier, G. (2003). The coverage of parapsychology in introductory psychology textbooks: 1990-2002. Journal of parapsychology, 67, 167-179.
Rockwell, T. (1979). Pseudoscience? Or pseudocriticism? Journal of Parapsychology, 43, 221-231.
Rogo, D.S. (1980). Parapsychology and psychology textbooks. Research Letter of the University of Utrecht Parapsychology Laboratory, n°10, 9-17.]] Si bien que, pour connaître véritablement la parapsychologie scientifique, on ne peut guère se passer de la lecture des revues spécialisées à comité de lecture et des actes des congrès des parapsychologues professionnels. Néanmoins, certains considèrent à tort que les comités de rédaction des revues parapsychologiques sont peu sévères avec les travaux de leurs pairs. Il leur sera donc profitable de pouvoir accéder à des articles dans des revues plus traditionnelles. La liste de références que nous présentons a vocation à devenir exhaustive, aussi vous pouvez toujours suggérer des articles anciens ou récents publiés dans des revues ou des ouvrages collectifs mainstream par mail à contact@metapsychique.org
Pour ceux qui ignorent encore tout de la parapsychologie scientifique, nous espérons que cette liste les poussera à faire preuve d’un peu de curiosité. Les articles sont répartis en six rubriques :
I. Recherches orientées vers la preuve du psi
II. Recherches orientées vers la compréhension du psi
III. Critiques et controverses
IV. Etudes sur les croyances aux phénomènes paranormaux
V. Etudes psychodynamiques
VI. Revues de vulgarisation française

Les articles ci-dessous sont principalement issus des bases de données Index Medicus et PubMed, et d’un recensement réalisé par Bruno Severi sur plus de 1000 publications (European Journal of Parapsychology, 1994, 1995).
Le classement se fait par ordre alphabétique à partir du nom du premier auteur et par année de parution.

 

I. Recherches orientées vers la preuve du psi :

Les recherches orientées vers la démonstration de l’existence d’anomalies sont majoritaires en parapsychologie. Mais la question qu’elle pose – celle de la réalité de phénomènes autrefois considérés comme surnaturels – reste difficile à aborder frontalement dans les revues conventionnelles. Certains auteurs sont parfois parvenus à exposer leurs travaux même lorsque ceux-ci obtenaient des résultats positifs autorisant à conclure en faveur de l’hypothèse psi. La plupart de ces travaux n’ont pas été contredits : ils ont simplement été ignorés ou oubliés, poussant chaque génération à reconstruire un corpus de faits à défendre. Après les brillants travaux de Krippner et Ullman sur le rêve télépathique (1966, 1969, 1970, 1973 ; présentés également par Child, 1985, et Van de Castle, 1969), c’est le ganzfeld qui a servi de cadre de recherche, avec en particulier la méta-analyse de Bem & Honorton en 1994. Actuellement, ce sont des recherches se rapprochant encore plus des canons neuroscientifiques, comme celles de Bierman & Radin (1997) et de Wackermann (2003, 2006), qui tiennent le haut du tableau. Que reste-t-il de la « télépathie » ou du « pressentiment » après un passage dans les fourches caudines de l’expérience ? Vous pouvez désormais vous faire votre avis.
Les recherches sur la psychokinèse ne sont pas en reste : après les importants résultats d’H. Schmidt (1963, 1971, 1982) et de Jahn & Dunne (1982, 1986, 1988, 2005), toujours pas invalidés, il y a actuellement une controverse sur la méta-analyse de la psychokinèse sur dés ou sur Générateurs de Nombres Aléatoires (Bösch, Steinkamp & Boller 2006 ; Radin, Nelson, Dobyns & Houtkooper, 2006). La nouveauté est que cette controverse est maintenant publiée dans la plus grande revue de psychologie anglophone et oppose des parapsychologues à des parapsychologues !

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Baker, K.H. (1937) Report of a minor investigation of extrasensory perception. J Exp Psychol, 21, 120-125.

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Bem, D. and Honorton, C. (1994), Does psi exist ? Replicable evidence of an anomalous process of information transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 4-18. (Traduit en français ici).

Bernstein, Seth D (1979). An evaluation of psychic readers of human energy. Dissertation Abstracts International, 39(7-B), (pp. 3549)

Beutler, J.J. et al. (1987) The effect of paranormal healing on hypertension. J Hypertension, 5, 551-552.
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Bierman, D. J. & Radin, D. I. (1997). Anomalous anticipatory response on randomized future conditions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 84, 689-690.

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Bird, J.M. (1924). Psychic adventures at home. Sci Am, 130, 20-21.

Bird, J.M. (1924). Our psychic investigation advances. Sci Am, 130, 86-143.

Bird, J. M. (1924). Our next psychic. Sci Am, July, 28-29.

Bird, J.M. (1924). The Margery’ mediumship: 1. Describing our first test sitting, and explaining our program for the immediate future. Sci Am, Aug., 88-89.

Bird, J.M. (1924). Our psychic investigation: A formulation of new policy, and a rejoinder to a harsh critic. Sci Am, Oct., 233.

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Bösch, H, Steinkamp, F, and Boller, E (2006). Examining psychokinesis: The interaction of human intention with random number generators – A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132.

Bösch, H, Steinkamp, F, and Boller, E (2006). In the eye of the beholder : Reply to Wilson and Shadish (2006) and Radin, Nelson, Dobyns, and Houtkooper (2006). Psychological Bulletin, 132, 533-537.

Bronzaft, A.L. (1972) Internal-external scores and success on an ESP task. Psychol Rep, 31, 41-42.

Buscaino, V.M. (1967) Fotografia del pensiero ? Act Neurol, 22, 491.

Caballero, O. (1982) (At the fringes of nursing. Healers and parapsychological medecine). Rev Enferm, 5, 31-34.

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Child, I. L. (1985), Psychology and anomalous observations. The Question of ESP in dreams. American Psychologist, 40, 1219-1230.

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Comunetti, A.M. (1978) Systematic experiments to establish the spatial distribution of physiologically effective stimuli of unidentified nature. Experientia, 34, 889-893.

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Courtier, J. (1909) Rapport sur les séances d’Eusapia Palladino à l’lnstitut Général Psychologique. Bulletin de I ‘Institut General Psychologique, 5,6.

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Crussard C. and G. Jollant (1984). Recherches sur les déformations anormales de métaux. Mémoires Scientifiques Revue Métallurgiques. fev. 1984 n° 10.

Dean, E.D. (1966) Plethysmograph recording as ESP responses. Int J Neuropsychiatry , 2,
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Dreistadt, Roy (1971). The prophetic achievements of geniuses and types of extrasensory perception. Psychology: A Journal of Human Behavior, 8(2), (pp. 27-40)

Duane, T. & Behrendt, T. (1965) Extrasensory electroencephalographic induction between identical twins. Science, 150, 367.

Duteil, C. (1978) Un medium dans le laboratoire. Psychologie, Avril 1978.

Ermacora, G.B. (1897). Casi di telepatia con percezione collettiva. Raccoglitore Medico, 10 Gennaio.

Foulkes, D., Belvedere, E., Masters, R.E., Houston, J., Krippner, S., Honorton, C, Ullman, M. (1972). Long-distance, « sensory-bombardment » ESP in dreams: a failure to replicate. Percept Mot Skills,35(3):731-4.

Free, E.E. (1924). Our psychic investigation: Preliminary committee opinion on the Margery case. Sci Am, Nov., 304.

Free, E.E (1925). The psychic investigation: Claims of Margery’ to produce supernormal phenomena are rejected by the committee. Sci Am, Jan., 229.

Glkk, B.S. & Kogen, J. (1973) Clairvoyance in hypnotized subjects: Some positive results. Psychiatr Q, 47, 276-284.

Globus, G.G. et al. (1968) An appraisal of telepathic communication in dreams. Psychophysiology, 4, 365.

Harris, W.S., Gowda, M., Kolb, J.W., Strychacz, C.P., Vacek, J.L., Jones, P.G., et al. (1999). A randomized, controlled trial of the effects of remote, intercessory prayer on outcomes in patients admitted to a coronary care unit. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 2273-2278.

Harvalik, Z.V. (1978) Anatomical localization of human detection of weak electro-magnetic radiation: Experiments with dowsers. Physiol Chem Phys, 10, 525-534.

Hericourt, J. (1886) Un cas de somnambulisme à distance. Rev Philosophique, 21, 200-203.

Honorton, C. et al. (1972). A study of telepathicaily-influenced dream content under two conditions. Psychophysiol, 9, 115.

Honorton, C. et al. (1972). Shift in subjective state associated with feedback-augmented EEG alpha. Psychophysiol, 9, 269- 270.

Horowitz, K.A. et al. (1975) Plant « primary perception ». Electrophysiological unresp-onsiveness to brine shrimps killing. Science, 189, 478-480.

Houtkooper, J.M., Schienle, A., Stark, R., Vaitl, D. (1999). Geophysical variables and behavior: LXXXVIII. Atmospheric electromagnetism: the possible disturbing influence of natural sferics on ESP. Percept Mot Skills, 89(3 Pt 2):1179-92.

Houtkooper, J.M., Schienle, A., Stark, R., Vaitl, D. (2001). Atmospheric electromagnetism: attempted replication of the correlation between natural sferics and ESP. Percept Mot Skills, 93(3):754-6.

Istre, M. (1974) (Astonishing premonition of the painter Victor Brauner). Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr, 74,159-162.

Jahn, R.G. (1982). The Persistant Paradox of Psychic Phenomena : An Engineering Perspective. Proceedings IEEE, 70, No.2, pp.136-170.

Krippner, S. (1965) Coding and clairvoyance in a dual aspect test with children. Percept Mot Skills, 20, 745-748.

Krippner, S. (1968). Experiments in telepathy. J Am Soc Psychosom Dent Med, 15(4):158-63.

Krippner, S. (1968). An experimental study in hypnosis and telepathy. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, (1), (pp. 45-54)

Krippner, S. (1969) Investigations of extrasensory phenomena in dreams and other altered states of consciousness. J Am Soc Psychosom Dent Med, 16, 7-14.

Krippner, S. & Ullman, M. (1969) Telepathic perception in the dream state: Confirmatory study using EEG-EOG monitoring techniques. Percept Mot Skills, 29,915-918.

Krippner, S. & Ullman, M. (1970) Telepathy and dreams: A controlled experiment with electroencephalogram-electro-oculogram monitoring. J Nerv Ment Dis, 151, 394-403.

Krippner, S., Hickman, J., Auerhahn, N., Harris, R.. (1972) Clairvoyant perception of target material in three states of consciousness. Percept Mot Skills, 35, 439- 446.

Krippner, S., Honorton, C. & Ullman, M. (1973) A long-distance ESP dream study with the « Grateful Dead ». J Am Soc Psychosom Dent Med, 20, 9-17.

Leutin, V.P. (1968) (An electroenceph- alographic study of the interaction of sensorily isolated subjects by the conditioned reflex method). Nerv Sist, 9, 172-176.

Lombroso, C. (1891). Inchiesta sulla trasmissione del pensiero. Archivio di Psichiatria, Scienze Penali e Antropologia Criniinale, 12, 58-109.

Marillier, L. (1887) La suggestion mentale et les actions à distance. Rev Philosophique, 23, 400-422.

May, E.C., Paulinyi, T., & Vassy, Z. (2005). Anomalous anticipatory skin conductance response to acoustic stimuli : Experimental results and speculation about a mechanism. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 11, 587-588.

McConnell, R.A. (1955) Wishing with dice. J Exp Psychol, 50, 269-275.

Michie, D., & West, D.J. (1957). An experiment on telepathy using television. Nature, 21;180(4599):1402-3.

Milton, J., & Wiseman, R. (1999). Does psi exist ? Lack of replication of an anomalous process of information transfer. Psychological Bulletin, 125. 387-391.

Milton, J., & Wiseman, R. (1999). A meta-analysis of mass-media tests of extrasensory perception. British Journal of Psychology, 90, 235-240.

Milton, J., & Wiseman, R. (2001). Does psi exist ? Reply to Storm and Ertel. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 434-438

Moss, T. & Gengerelli, J.A. (1967) Telepathy and emotional stimuli: A controlled experiment. J Abnorm Soc Psychol, 72, 341- 348.

Moss, T., Paulson, M.J., Chang, A.F., & Levitt, M. (1970). Hypnosis and ESP. A controlled experiment. Am J Clin llypn, 13, 46-56.

Moss, T. et al. (1970) Long-distance ESP: A controlled study. J Abnorm Psychol, 76, 288-294.

Moss, T. & Gengerelli, J A (1970). ESP effects generated by affective states. Behavioral Neuropsychiatry, 2(9-10), (pp. 8-12)

Moss, T., Eveloff, H.H., Chang, A.F. (1974). A laboratory investigation of telepathy: The study of a psychic. Behav Neuropsychiatry, 6, 71-80.

Murphy, G. (1967). Introductory aspects of modern parapsychological research. Trans N Y Acad Sci, 30(2):256-60.

Nash, C.B. & Buzby, D.E. (1965). Extrasensory perception of identical and fraternal twins: Comparison of clairvoyance test scores. J Hered, 56, 52-54.

Nelson, R.D., Radin, D., Shoup, R, & Bancel, P. (2002). Correlations of Continuous Random Data with Major
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Palmer, J. (2003). ESP in the ganzfeld : Analysis of a debate. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 10, 51-68.

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Ullman, M., & Krippner, S. (1969) A laboratory approach to the nocturnal dimension of paranormal experience: Report of a confirmatory study using the REM monitoring technique. Biol Psychiatry, 1, 259-270.

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Willis, J. et al. (1974). ESP in the classroom: Failure to replicate. Psychol Rep, 35, 582.

Wilson, D.B., Shadish, W.R. (2006). On blowing trumpets to the tulips: to prove or not to prove the null hypothesis–comment on Bösch, Steinkamp, and Boller (2006). Psychol Bull. 2006 Jul;132(4):524-8; discussion 533-7. Comment on : Psychol Bull. 2006 Jul;132(4):497-523.

 

II. Recherches orientées vers la compréhension du psi :

Un autre reproche qui a été fait aux parapsychologues est de rester finalement trop terre à terre, trop accrochés à la démonstration de la réalité de leur objet, alors que cet objet, une fois démontré, n’en restera pas moins inexpliqué. Mais ce reproche, s’il a pu être valable, ne tient plus face aux amples efforts de compréhension développés par les parapsychologues. En faisant varier à l’infini les conditions d’apparition du phénomène, et en produisant des modèles théoriques originaux, ces chercheurs tentent de se représenter un monde où ces phénomènes ont leur place. Beaucoup d’efforts sont également faits pour situer les frontières du domaine parapsychologique, et comprendre comment certains phénomènes connexes comme les sorties hors du corps (OBE, cf. Alvarado), la dissociation (Alvarado) ou encore l’homéopathie (Walach) ne s’expliqueront véritablement qu’en prenant en compte leur versant parapsychologique.
Si aucune théorie n’a su encore s’imposer véritablement en parapsychologie et au-delà, il n’en reste pas moins que plusieurs parapsychologues membres de la Parapsychological Association ont pu participer aux réflexions actuelles sur la « causalité rétroactive » dans le congrès de l’AAAS, l’association qui chapeaute l’establishment scientifique et publie la revue Science, tenu à San Diego du 20 au 22 juin 2006, et que leurs contributions sont donc disponibles dans les actes (voir l’encadré ci-dessous pour la liste des interventions).

Congrès de l’AAAS, Frontiers of Time: Retrocausation – Experiment and Theory. 20-22 juin 2006, San Diego (USA).

Harold Atmanspacher (Max Planck Institute, Freiburg, Germany), « From the dynamics of coupled maps to the psychological arrow of time. »

Richard Broughton (University of Northampton), « Encounters with the frontiers of time: Questions raised by anomalous human experience. »

Richard Dick Bierman (University of Amsterdam, Netherlands), « Empirical research on the radical subjective solution of the measurement problem. Does time get its direction through conscious observation? »

Jean Burns (J. Conscousness Studies), « Is the action of the mind carried out on a molecular level? »

John Cramer (University of Washington), « Reverse causation and the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics. »

York Dobyns (Princeton University), « Retrocausal informatioin flow: What are the implications of knowing the future? »

Avshalom Elitzur (Weizmann Institute, Israel), « Retrocausal quantum measurement: Some recent findings and their theoretical implications. »

Gerhard Hahne (NASA Ames Research Center), « Schrodinger equation for joint bidirectional motion in time. »

Joop Houtkooper (Justus-Liebig-Univ. of Giessen), « Time-reversed causation or extant indefinite reality? »

Michael Ibison (Institute for Advanced Studies, Austin, TX), « Are advanced potential anomalous? »

Garret Moddel (University of Colorado), «  »Constraints imposed by entropy, noise and information on retrocausation. » »

Roger Nelson (Princeton University), « Anomalous anticipatory responses in networked random data. »

Fotini Pallikari (University of Athens, Athens, Greece), « Some evidence for reverse causation and physical interpretation. »

Dean Radin (Institute of Noetic Sciences, CA), « Psychophysiological and perceptual tests of possible retrocausal effects in humans. »

Elizabeth Rauscher (Techic Research Laboratory, Arizona), « The speed of thought: Investigation of a complex space time metric to describe psychic phenomena. »

Daniel P. Sheehan (Department of Physics, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA), « Langrangian interpretationn of Radin Markov-chain experiments. »

Richard Shoup (Boundary Institute, CA), « Physics without causality — Evidence and theory. »

Henry Stapp (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA), « Purported causal anomalies within a quantum-theoretical context. »

Walter von Lucadou (WGFP, Freiburg, Germany), « Self-organization of temporal structures — A possible solution for the intervention problem. »

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III. Critiques et controverses :

Il est normal de mentionner les articles qui mettent en garde contre un abord naïf du domaine parapsychologique. Faire preuve d’esprit critique est la moindre des choses. Mais, d’après l’examen d’E. Bauer, les critiques envers la parapsychologie sont d’un genre particulier : elles sont affectivement beaucoup plus chargées que pour d’autres domaines, ce qui donnent lieu à des excès en tout genre. Ainsi, si plusieurs articles critiques sont publiés dans Nature ou Science, ils restent très sélectifs par rapport aux expériences critiquées. Souvent, les parapsychologues ne peuvent même pas user de leurs droits de réponse. Il y a néanmoins un numéro spécial de News Ideas on Psychology (1991) autour des critiques de Mario Bunge auquel les parapsychologues ont pu participer. On notera que certains sceptiques prennent la peine de lire les publications de parapsychologie et de fréquenter les parapsychologues avant d’émettre leurs critiques : ce sont des chercheurs comme Alcock, Hyman, Truzzi, Wiseman, Blackmore, Hergovich, et quelques autres. Mais on retrouve plusieurs controverses où ce sont les critiques échangées entre parapsychologues qui sont les plus pertinentes. Un bon exemple en est le numéro de Journal of Consciousness Studies consacré aux expériences de Sheldrake sur le sentiment d’être observé et à leurs critiques, qui sont pour la plupart le fait de parapsychologues. Voici un encadré reprenant ces publications :

Journal of Consciousness Studies
Volume 12, No. 6, June 2005
SPECIAL ISSUE: SHELDRAKE AND HIS CRITICS:
The Sense Of Being Glared At
Edité par Anthony Freeman

Atkinson, A.P., Staring at the Back Of Someone’s Head Is No Signal, And a Sense of Being Stared At Is No Sense

Baker, I.S., Nomenclature and Methodology

Blackmore, S., Confusion Worse Confounded

Braud, W., The Sense of Being Stared At: Fictional, Physical, Perceptual, or Attentional/Intentional?

Burns, J.E., Detection of Staring – Psi or Statistical Artifact?

Carpenter, R.H.S., Does Scopesthesia Imply Extramission?

Clarke, C., The Sense of Being Stared At: Its Relevance to the Physics of Consciousness

Ellis, R., The Ambiguity of ‘In Here/Out There’ Talk: In What Sense Is Perception ‘Out in the World’?

Fontana, D., Rupert Sheldrake and the Staring Effect

Freeman, A., The Sense of Being Glared At: What Is It Like to be a Heretic?

French, C.C., A Closer Look at Sheldrake’s Treatment of Rattee’s Data

Radin, D., The Sense of Being Stared At: A Preliminary Meta-Analysis

Schlitz, M., The Discourse of Controversial Science: The Sceptic-Proponent Debate on Remote Staring

Schmidt, S., Comments on Sheldrake’s ‘The Sense of Being Stared At’

Sheldrake, R., The Sense of Being Stared At Part 1: Is it Real or Illusory?

Sheldrake, R., The Sense of Being Stared At Part 2: Its Implications for Theories of Vision

Sheldrake, R., The Non-Visual Detection of Staring: Response to Commentators

Velmans, M., Are We Out of Our Minds?

Voici maintenant une sélection encore incomplète d’articles critiquant la parapsychologie sans réaliser de contre-expériences, ou répondant à ces critiques, et publiés dans des revues conventionnelles.

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Alcock, J.E. (1991). On the importance of methodological skepticism. Special issue: Mario Bunge on nonscientific psychology and pseudoscience: A debate. New Ideas in Psychology, 9,151-155.

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Hacking, I. (1993). Some reasons for not taking parapsychology very seriously. Dialogue : Canadian Philosophical Review, 32, 587-594.

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Hansel, C.E. (1969) ESP: Deficiencies of experimental method. J Pharrn Pharmacol, 21,1171-1172.

Harman, W. (1991). The epistemological foundations of science reconsidered. Special issue: Mario Bunge on nonscientific psychology and pseudoscience: A debate. New Ideas in Psychology, 9,187-195.

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Hearne, K. (1979) Parapsychology: ESP – does it really exist? Nurs Mirror, 149, 28-29.

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Hyman, R. (1986). Parapsychological research: A tutorial review and critical appraisal. Proc IEEE, 74,823-849.

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IV. Etude sur les croyances aux phénomènes paranormaux :

Il paraît essentiel à beaucoup de parapsychologues de pouvoir expliquer comment se développent les croyances aux phénomènes paranormaux, à la fois pour prendre du recul sur ces croyances, et pour bien montrer les différences entre les convictions développées suite aux études scientifiques des phénomènes ou à des expériences spontanées. Le thème de la croyance au paranormal ne confronte pas frontalement avec la question de la réalité des phénomènes, aussi a-t-il pu faire l’objet de nombreuses publications dans des revues mainstream. Certaines sont dues à des chercheurs qui étudient également les phénomènes paranormaux en laboratoire (Thalbourne, Irwin, Rao, Persinger, Watt) et d’autres par des psychologues se déclarant « sceptiques » (Wiseman, Houran, Lange, Brugger, Hergovich). Toutes ces études sont importantes car elles nous expliquent quelles personnes seront plus susceptibles de croire au paranormal, et quels sont les éléments normaux de l’environnement qui peuvent induire de telles expériences, tels les champs électro-magnétiques faibles (Persinger).

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